Recent years have seen a movement of people documenting and criticizing what they call hostile design, hostile architecture or defensive design.
This refers to design features implemented into city and town planning which were created specifically to deter homeless people from finding somewhere to sleep.
It's one of those things that once it's pointed out, you start seeing it everywhere. Here are just a few of the most common examples of hostile design to look out for in your city.
1. Slanted Benches: More Than Just an Uncomfortable Seat
You might've noticed slanted benches at train stations or bus stops, and been baffled by how uncomfortable they are to sit on. The sad truth is that they're specifically designed this way to make them impossible to sleep on.
Benches have always been a go-to for homeless people looking to rest, and to combat this, cities have made benches as uncomfortable as possible while still serving their basic purpose.
Metro stop bench is tilted so attempting to lay down ends up with you sliding off. from r/HostileArchitecture
2. Armrests on Benches: They're Not For Your Arms
While on the surface these armrests seem innocuous, they're again a feature that's been designed to stop people from sleeping on benches. The armrests prevent people from lying across benches, making them impossible to sleep on.
Armrests for comfort. Totally not to stop homeless people lying down... from r/HostileArchitecture
3. Rocky Pavements: The Reason Behind Unusual Paving
If you see a smooth section of pavement abruptly transition into coarse rocks, it's probably because someone is trying to stop people from sleeping or begging on that area of the street.
You'll likely notice this feature under awnings or other shelters, where people would most typically try to take refuge.
To someone homeless & sleeping rough, this hostile architecture makes sure they aren't sleeping here. Learn more about the impact of defensive architecture beginning tomorrow in 'Homeless in a Hostile City', our 10-part tale, online at https://t.co/UT0UdT7wW3#defensiveTOpic.twitter.com/fMfOHhw4kw
— Haven Toronto (@HavenTorontoCA) May 17, 2018
4. Spiked Windowsills: Not Just For the Birds
Windows and walls have been spiked in cities for some time now, usually to deter birds from roosting on them. However, many windowsills at ground level are being spiked now too, this time to deter people from sitting or sheltering under the awnings of windows.
— Robert Wade (@rwade300) May 12, 2018
5. Segmented Benches: An Unusual Design With a Purpose
Benches with imprints or concave grooves to designate where people can sit have become popular across cities recently. As with other modifications to benches on this list, the driving force behind this design choice is to make sleeping on benches impossible.
montreal has probably the least subtle implementation of hostile architecture i have ever seen pic.twitter.com/wU3fHEjPX5— rook (@rooksfeather) April 23, 2018
6. Street Spikes: A Stark Message to Those Sleeping Rough
In addition to stones and rocks, certain areas have been installing spikes into their pavements as a deterrent against homeless people looking for a spot to sleep. These spikes are usually made of concrete or metal, and are placed in or near doorways, under bridges, and other sheltered areas. The pictures in the tweet below belong to Andrew Horton.
7. Awning Gaps: Not a Flaw, But a Design Choice
Think that gap in a store's awning is a flaw? You might be wrong. In many cases, this gap is a deliberate design choice to withhold shelter from those seeking it. It's subtle, but it's just another example of the crack-down against people sleeping on the streets.
When awnings have no rain gutters and allow a gap between themselves & buildings so no one can sleep there… #hostilearchitecturepic.twitter.com/nUevUx1LsX— Seattle DSA? (@SeattleDSA) January 6, 2018
8. Curved and Slanted Benches: Purposely Uncomfortable
Like the other benches on this list, benches that curve around and/or have their seats slanted are deliberate attempts to stop homeless people from sleeping rough. Because they prevent people from reclining fully, they're virtually impossible to sleep or sit comfortably on.
Hostile architecture by Madison Square Park: benches built at an incline, rendering sleep for houseless people impossible ???????????? pic.twitter.com/ZnxkMAfKLB— tcb ⚡️ (@jersing) August 11, 2017
9. Barred Corners: Shutting Out Loiterers and Others
Not even corners are safe from the influence of hostile design. You might come across corners which are barred or fenced off, to prevent people from begging, loitering, or sheltering there.
No hanging out in the corner #milano#hostiledesign#defensiveTO#defensivearchitecturepic.twitter.com/rzVzSWBVRk— Cara Chellew (@CaraChellew) May 11, 2018
10. Street Dividers: Pushing the Homeless Off the Streets
Foliage is always a welcome sight in the city, but these planters aren't always what they appear to be. What looks like a refreshing flash of green in an otherwise concrete jungle can often be an attempt to push homeless people away from the sheltered side of the street.
By directing traffic towards sheltered areas with the aid of dividers, the homeless are left without a clear patch of ground to sleep on.
Earlier today, Jason, the man who sleeps in front of the Tim Hortons at Victoria and Dundas streets said police asked him to move across the street so these planters could be installed. The other side of the street is not sheltered from rain or wind. Story to come. pic.twitter.com/8HkH2pqGwu
— The Eyeopener (@theeyeopener) March 22, 2018
11. Raised Grate Covers: Not Just an Abstract Design
This might look like an abstract sculpture, but in reality, it's been constructed to stop people from sleeping on the grate. Often during colder weather, homeless people will seek out vents and grates to sleep on because of the warmth they release.
The placement of structures like these prevents homeless people from sleeping on grates and staying warm during the Winter.
I like to think that we are better than this.
Architecture that discriminates against an already marginalized population is the laziest way to address the issue of homelessness. If we, as a public health provider, resort to doing this, what kind of example are we setting? pic.twitter.com/7akZlcKhIh
— eHealth Devs (@ehealthDevs) March 29, 2018
12. Tiered Seating: Just Try Sleeping on These
Similar to benches, tiered public seating like this are designed specifically to deter those who are looking for somewhere to sleep.
Thanks to the tiered structure, it's impossible to stretch out and get comfortable enough to rest.
Newly built “benches” spotted in Riverdale Park East #defensiveTO#hostiledesign#toronto#defensivearchitecture#hostilearchitecture#urbandesign#publicspacepic.twitter.com/KOuigRS0b8— Cara Chellew (@CaraChellew) February 27, 2018
13. Fenced Grates: Withholding Heat
Like the structure seen earlier on this list, fenced grates are also an attempt to stop homeless people from huddling around them for warmth in cold weather. Grates are popular in the Winter, as they're some of the few areas of warmth homeless people can find when the temperature drops.
@CaraChellew Unsure if this example fits within #defensiveTO but nevertheless. South entrance of TGH on Gerrard. Used to be horiz. flat ventilation grate level with ground; homeless slept on it for warmth. A few months ago the grate was reno'd with a slope. This failed to... 1/2 pic.twitter.com/bsO55IDByh— Nathan Ng (@nathanng) February 24, 2018
14. Retractable Spikes: Hidden in Plain Sight
Perhaps you've seen metal discs level with the pavement outside certain establishments. Chances are they're retractable spikes, which can be pushed up at night to prevent people from sleeping outside the premises.
This allows establishments to appear open and welcoming during the day, without making shoppers uncomfortable with the sight of defensive design.
Tonight, we noticed a theatre had these removable anti-homeless spikes in their doorway. #DefensiveArchitecturepic.twitter.com/Xj8eXUkW3N— Homeless Reach (UK) (@HomelessReach) June 18, 2015
15. Boulders Under Bridges: Making Rough Sleeping Rougher
Bridges provide large amounts of shelter, and thus are popular spots for people who find themselves sleeping rough. In order to combat the number of people sleeping under bridges, many cities will place large stones or boulders, covering the pavement.
This leaves only the roads clear, with no safe area for homeless people to sleep.
#Paris large stones placed under bridge to stop refugees from sheltering or sleeping near the official camp #defensivearchitecture#borderspic.twitter.com/YAV1nm0c49— Calais Solidarity (@calaisolidarity) February 12, 2017
The problem with hostile architecture is that it doesn't aim to address the crisis of homelessness. All it achieves is making life harder for those already struggling. Forcing people to find other places to sleep won't solve the issue of homelessness. Now that you're aware of these structures, see how many of them you recognize in your own city.